Hazmat transportation is known for its numerous regulations and restrictions. Still, dangerous goods embrace many ordinary products frequently purchased by customers. That is why hazmat shipping can be beneficial for your business.
What are hazardous materials?
Hazardous materials include many products that are potentially dangerous for transport. Most hazmat items contain chemical substances or gases that harm people and the environment. Dangerous goods require special handling, packaging, storage, and shipping under numerous regulations. It is important to get familiar with the features of hazardous materials to properly plan your shipping operations.
Types of hazmat products
Depending on the level of harmfulness, the hazardous matters are split into nine groups. These classes range from the most dangerous items to those relatively unsafe for shipping. Still, all types of hazmat products need to be examined before arranging a shipment.
- Explosives are the materials likely to explode under adverse conditions (fireworks, matters including dynamite components)
- Gases are usually transported compressed to prevent them from being inhaled or surfaced (aerosols, lighters, cosmetic sprays)
- Flammable liquids are the substances that inflame when contacting fire (adhesives, oil-based chemicals, gasoline, perfumes)
- Flammable solids get easily consumed by fire due to their chemical composition (matches, coal, sulfur contents)
- Oxidizers are types of hazmats that ignite because of contacting oxygen (chlorines, bleaches, fertilizers)
- Toxic substances include chemicals or viruses and bacterias that cause serious injuries (pesticides, biomedical waste)
- Radioactive matters are prone to giving off harmful doses of radiation (specific medicines, X-ray equipment)
- Corrosives rapidly destroy steel objects and human skin (different kinds of acid cleaners, paints, strippers)
- Miscellaneous hazmats involve other potentially dangerous items that need careful transporting (batteries, vehicle parts, etc.)
Hazmat shipping regulations
All types of hazmat products undergo strict policies when it comes to shipping. Several major institutions regulate shipping hazardous materials:
U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
The Code of Federal Regulations (title 49) controls domestic hazmat shipping operations. It represents a set of requirements for packing, labeling, and handling dangerous goods. If you are planning to ship hazardous materials within the country, you must learn the key points of state rules for hazmat transportation.
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG) includes regulations for the international shipping of hazardous materials by water transport means.
ICAO & IATA
International Civil Aviation Organization is a governmental institution that supervises transporting of hazardous goods by air. The International Air Transport Association covers commercial hazmat delivery via private airlines.
How to ship hazardous goods
Shipping hazardous products can seem challenging due to the high number of rules. However, suitable preparation and conventional planning can streamline your hazmat transportation.
Classifying and documentation
The state regulations require shippers and retailers to properly classify hazmat items and gather all the necessary documentation. The characteristics of hazmat types define the way you would ship them. First, you must ensure which class of hazardous goods your products belong to. To accurately classify the items, you may turn to the official DOT website to get more data on hazmat features.
Second, start preparing all the demanded documentation in advance. The safety data sheet (SDS) is one of the most important hazmat shipping documents since it includes all product details and handling recommendations. You also need to obtain the paperwork that lists your items’ identification number, shipping name, and shipper’s certification, as well as the description of the product quantity and packaging type.
Packaging and labeling
Packaging requirements for hazardous products vary depending on their type and specifics. Start preparing your items by determining their packing group:
- Packing group I (products of great danger)
- Packing group II (products of medium danger)
- Packing group III (products of minor danger)
The packing group defines the materials you use to safely ship hazardous goods. Make sure not to pack dangerous matters into repositories of incompatible materials that can potentially cause chemical reactions. Typically, hazardous liquids and some types of solids are shipped in drums, while other hazmats can be condensed into bulk containers or special crates. Hazmat packaging requirements are fixated on the number of official instructions.
Proper labeling of your hazardous goods is compulsory and needs close attention to detail. A huge variety of hazmat labels mark basic characteristics of the product and handling guidelines (i.e., keeping away from heat, inhalation hazards, etc.). You can learn more about hazmat labeling in the detailed labeling index.
Choosing a reliable carrier
The right carrier choice is one of the key points of successful hazmat transportation. Cooperating with experienced carriers familiar with the specifics of shipping dangerous goods is principal. Several major carriers (FedEx, USPS, UPS, DHL) offer hazmat shipping services depending on your product’s type. At GoShip, we can connect you to a wide network of certified carriers that will deliver your hazardous materials safely and on time.